TA571 And ClearFake Campaigns: PowerShell Exploits Unraveled

This technique involves manipulating users into copying and pasting malicious PowerShell scripts under the guise of resolving legitimate issues.

by Ashish Khaitan June 18th, 2024

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Cybersecurity researchers have uncovered a disturbing trend in malware delivery tactics involving sophisticated social engineering techniques. These methods exploit user trust and familiarity with PowerShell scripts to compromise systems. 

Among these threat actors, the two highlighted, TA571 and ClearFake campaign, were seen leveraging social engineering for spreading malware. According to researchers, the threat actors associated with TA571 and the ClearFake cluster have been actively using a novel approach to infiltrate systems. 

This technique involves manipulating users into copying and pasting malicious PowerShell scripts under the guise of resolving legitimate issues.

Understanding the TA571 and ClearFake Campaign 

Example of a ClearFake attack chain. (Source: Proofpoint)

The TA571 campaign, first observed in March 2024, distributed emails containing HTML attachments that mimic legitimate Microsoft Word error messages. These messages coerce users to execute PowerShell scripts supposedly aimed at fixing document viewing issues. 

Similarly, the ClearFake campaign, identified in April 2024, employs fake browser update prompts on compromised websites. These prompts instruct users to run PowerShell scripts to install what appears to be necessary security certificates, says Proofpoint.

Upon interaction with the malicious prompts, users unwittingly copy PowerShell commands to their clipboard. Subsequent instructions guide them to paste and execute these commands in PowerShell terminals or via Windows Run dialog boxes. Once executed, these scripts initiate a chain of events leading to the download and execution of malware payloads such as DarkGate, Matanbuchus, and NetSupport RAT.

The complexity of these attacks is compounded by their ability to evade traditional detection methods. Malicious scripts are often concealed within double-Base64 encoded HTML elements or obscured in JavaScript, making them challenging to identify and block preemptively.

Attack Variants, Evolution, and Recommendations

Since their initial observations, Proofpoint has noted the evolution of these techniques. TA571, for instance, has diversified its lures, sometimes directing victims to use the Windows Run dialog for script execution instead of PowerShell terminals. Meanwhile, Clearlake has incorporated blockchain-based techniques like “EtherHiding” to host malicious scripts, adding a layer of obfuscation.

These developments highlight the critical importance of user education and better cybersecurity measures within organizations. Employees must be trained to recognize suspicious messages and actions that prompt the execution of PowerShell scripts from unknown sources. Organizations should also deploy advanced threat detection and blocking mechanisms capable of identifying malicious activities embedded within seemingly legitimate web pages or email attachments.

While the TA571 and ClearFake campaigns represent distinct threat actors with varying objectives, their utilization of advanced social engineering and PowerShell exploitation techniques demands heightened vigilance from organizations worldwide. By staying informed and implementing better cybersecurity practices, businesses can better defend against these online threats.


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